Real World

St Andrew's Church

Information
Description: 
St Andrew’s Church, built in the 14th Century, has one of the finest examples of in-situ acoustic jars (vases or pots) in the UK. These jars were common to European church construction in the late Middle Ages and are said to be based on the ideas of Roman architect Vitruvius, who discussed the use of resonant jars in the design of amphitheatres to provide clarity of voice presentation. They are designed as Helmholtz resonators, giving narrow band energy absorption according to the natural frequency of the jar although there is little conclusive acoustical evidence to show that they behave as designed. Studies suggest that the success or otherwise of these devices depends on the number of jars used and their placement, as well as the characteristics of the building and jars themselves. In anechoic and reverberant chambers the absorption effects of such jars are weak and highly selective, although can be significant below 200Hz. Together with their additional diffusive effects, the jars potentially help to eliminate strong normal modes and hence can be made effective with careful tuning and positioning. St Andrew’s Church has 11 jars placed high in the chancel, 6 in the north wall and 5 in the south, arranged at irregular intervals such that there are no directly opposite pairs.
Measurement Team: 
Damian T. Murphy
Capture Date: 
Thu, 16/12/2004
Size: 
2600 m³
Source Sound: 
Log. Swept Sine; 20-22k Hz; 15s long
Source Sound Category: 
Swept sine (logarithmic)
Space Category: 
Church
Generation Type: 
Real World
Analysis
Demonstration Impulse Response: 

Waveform

impulseClick here or on the waveform to upload a sound from your computer and hear it in this space

Acoustic Parameters


Octave Band
31.25 Hz62.5 Hz125 Hz250 Hz500 Hz1 kHz2 kHz4 kHz8 kHz16 kHz

Reverberation Time RT60 T30 (seconds)
1.922.351.421.251.221.451.421.220.850.55

Early Decay Time EDT (seconds)
1.571.311.051.050.931.050.800.670.290.16

Definition D50
0.090.630.680.610.640.730.790.850.930.98

Clarity C50 (dB)
-10.252.223.271.942.424.305.697.5111.2916.67

Clarity C80 (dB)
-2.383.995.424.585.005.906.958.9712.9919.58


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Images
Photographs and Diagrams: 
Location
Address: 
St Andrews Church Lyddington
United Kingdom
Attribution
Attribute this work to: 
www.openairlib.net
Audiolab, University of York
Damian T. Murphy

Hamilton Mausoleum

Information
Description: 
Construction on the Hamilton Mausoleum, Hamilton, Scotland, built for the 10th Duke of Hamilton, started in 1842 and was completed in 1858. It is constructed of marble and sandstone and is surmounted by a dome 36m in height, with two main spaces, a crypt in the lower section, and a chapel that was supposed to be used for worship. However the construction materials, size, shape and dimensions of the latter result in a complex, dense and very long reverberation, and hence render it almost useless for speech presentation. In fact the Guinness Book of World Records claims that the Hamilton Mausoleum has the longest “echo” of any building, recorded on 27 May 1994 as taking 15s for the sound of the reverberation caused by slamming one of the main doors to die away to nothing. The space is now often used by recording musicians for its unique acoustic properties. The interior of Hamilton Mausoleum is approximately octagonal in plan, with a diameter of 18 m. Each side of the octagon is either a plane wall or a further semicircular alcove. The results presented below having the microphone assembly in the centre and the source placed to one side, just outside one of the alcoves, giving a source-receiver distance of 4.8 m.
Measurement Team: 
Damian T. Murphy
Capture Date: 
Sat, 22/01/2005
Size: 
9000 m³
Source Sound: 
Log. Swept Sine; 20-22k Hz; 15s long
Source Sound Category: 
Swept sine (logarithmic)
Space Category: 
Chamber
Generation Type: 
Real World
Analysis
Demonstration Impulse Response: 

Waveform

impulseClick here or on the waveform to upload a sound from your computer and hear it in this space

Acoustic Parameters


Octave Band
31.25 Hz62.5 Hz125 Hz250 Hz500 Hz1 kHz2 kHz4 kHz8 kHz16 kHz

Reverberation Time RT60 T30 (seconds)
29.0522.8819.2715.0612.459.236.023.511.500.67

Early Decay Time EDT (seconds)
15.5514.7813.2411.718.256.203.260.700.060.06

Definition D50
0.050.170.130.330.400.520.630.860.950.99

Clarity C50 (dB)
-13.27-6.86-8.39-3.02-1.840.262.368.0012.3519.69

Clarity C80 (dB)
-5.36-4.44-7.08-2.75-1.450.793.209.0813.2722.19


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Images
Photographs and Diagrams: 
Location
Address: 
Hamiton Mausoleum
129 Muir Street
Hamilton ML3 6BJ
United Kingdom
Attribution
Attribute this work to: 
www.openairlib.net
Audiolab, University of York
Damian T. Murphy

Maes Howe

Information
Description: 
Maes-Howe, Orkney, is one of the finest chambered cairns in Europe, and is dated to 3000BC. Prior work in the acoustics of ancient sites explores how the resonances exhibited therein might have affected regular human ritual and interaction with the space. It has been hypothesized that as these resonances are within the lower male vocal range, they may have been used in ritual to accentuate aspects of the voice. Unlike many similar ancient structures that have been studied to date, Maes Howe lends itself to the presence of strong modal frequencies. It is almost cubic in shape, of dimension 4.6m, with walls made from large, flat slabs of stone, resulting in smooth reflecting surfaces rather than more commonly found irregular placement of smaller stones.
Measurement Team: 
Dr. Damian T. Murphy
Capture Date: 
Fri, 10/12/2004
Size: 
100 m³
Source Sound: 
Log. Swept Sine; 20-22k Hz; 15s long
Source Sound Category: 
Swept sine (logarithmic)
Input: 
Genelec S30D
Microphone(s): 
Neumann KM 140 Cardioid
Soundfield SPS422B Microphone
Space Category: 
Chamber
Generation Type: 
Real World
Analysis
Analysis Description: 
The w channel of the b-format recording is used for analysis.
Demonstration Impulse Response: 

Waveform

impulseClick here or on the waveform to upload a sound from your computer and hear it in this space

Acoustic Parameters


Octave Band
31.25 Hz62.5 Hz125 Hz250 Hz500 Hz1 kHz2 kHz4 kHz8 kHz16 kHz

Reverberation Time RT60 T30 (seconds)
0.780.840.760.640.580.510.470.430.350.29

Early Decay Time EDT (seconds)
0.750.750.620.370.240.240.240.110.110.11

Definition D50
0.160.620.770.890.930.920.960.990.991.00

Clarity C50 (dB)
-7.322.225.139.2811.1810.7814.2518.5620.3924.81

Clarity C80 (dB)
3.036.038.6512.2415.2515.4818.3822.8425.5331.01


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Images
Photographs and Diagrams: 
Location
Address: 
Maeshowe Stromness, ORK
United Kingdom
Attribution
Attribute this work to: 
www.openairlib.net
Audiolab, University of York
Damian T. Murphy

Sports Centre, University of York

Information
Description: 
These measurements were made in a large sports hall in the sports centre at York university. The reverberation tail is very long.
Measurement Team: 
Aglaia Foteinou
Simon Shelley
Capture Date: 
Tue, 20/07/2010
Size: 
9000 m³
Source Sound: 
Swept Sine; 20 Hz - 22 kHz; 15 Seconds; 96kHz
Source Sound Category: 
Swept sine (logarithmic)
Space Category: 
Hall
Sports Hall
Generation Type: 
Real World
Analysis
Analysis Description: 
A signal recorded by the cardioid microphone is used for the analysis.
Demonstration Impulse Response: 

Waveform

impulseClick here or on the waveform to upload a sound from your computer and hear it in this space

Acoustic Parameters


Octave Band
31.25 Hz62.5 Hz125 Hz250 Hz500 Hz1 kHz2 kHz4 kHz8 kHz16 kHz

Reverberation Time RT60 T30 (seconds)
21.1012.116.217.066.816.524.864.072.221.45

Early Decay Time EDT (seconds)
1.742.134.175.845.455.204.052.641.100.21

Definition D50
0.280.360.370.150.310.320.420.620.770.93

Clarity C50 (dB)
-4.10-2.51-2.28-7.58-3.44-3.31-1.432.055.1810.99

Clarity C80 (dB)
0.44-1.02-1.14-6.53-3.08-2.90-1.082.305.4611.24


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Images
Photographs and Diagrams: 
Location
Address: 
University Of York Sports Centre
Heslington
York, NYK YO10 5DD
United Kingdom
Attribution
Attribute this work to: 
www.openairlib.net
Audiolab, University of York
Aglaia Foteinou
Simon Shelley

The Lady Chapel, St Albans Cathedral

Information
Description: 
This data consists of 2 sets of impulse responses measured in the Lady Chapel at St Albans Cathedral. Measurements were taken at two different source and receiver positions, A and B. The positions of the sources and receivers for the two configurations, A and B, can be are described in the attached diagram. Each set consists of a 4 channel B-format response, a 2-channel ORTF stereo response, a 2-channel binaural stereo response and a 5-channel discrete microphone response (5.0) based on the Williams MMA microphone technique. Construction of the cathedral was started by the Normans in 1077 and hundreds of years of construction have resulted in a mixture of different architectural styles. The Lady Chapel is an example of architecture from the Decorated Gothic Period and was completed in 1327.
Measurement Team: 
Marcin Gorzel
Gavin Kearney
Aglaia Foteinou
Sorrel Hoare
Simon Shelley
Capture Date: 
Thu, 19/08/2010
Source Sound: 
Log swept sine; 20 Hz - 22 kHz; 10 Seconds; 44100 Hz
Source Sound Category: 
Swept sine (logarithmic)
Input: 
Genelec S30D digital monitoring system
Microphone(s): 
Neumann KM 140 cardioid microphone
Soundfield SPS422B microphone system
Space Category: 
Cathedral
Generation Type: 
Real World
Analysis
Analysis Description: 
The impulse response used for analysis is the W-channel from the B-format recording made at source-receiver position A.
Demonstration Impulse Response: 

Waveform

impulseClick here or on the waveform to upload a sound from your computer and hear it in this space

Acoustic Parameters


Octave Band
31.25 Hz62.5 Hz125 Hz250 Hz500 Hz1 kHz2 kHz4 kHz8 kHz16 kHz

Reverberation Time RT60 T30 (seconds)
3.443.283.312.782.492.342.101.711.050.62

Early Decay Time EDT (seconds)
2.142.522.401.761.501.501.240.600.350.22

Definition D50
0.130.340.190.560.570.630.670.850.910.96

Clarity C50 (dB)
-8.39-2.96-6.220.991.302.352.987.6610.0814.40

Clarity C80 (dB)
-5.66-2.13-0.652.742.743.794.449.2212.2017.47


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Images
Photographs and Diagrams: 
Diagram of the Lady Chapel
Location
Address: 
St Albans Cathedral
Sumpter Yard, Holywell Hill
St. Albans, HRT AL1 1BY
United Kingdom
Attribution
Attribute this work to: 
www.openairlib.net
Audiolab, University of York
Marcin Gorzel
Gavin Kearney
Aglaia Foteinou
Sorrel Hoare
Simon Shelley
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